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Fen Net Navigation menu VideoHostage Das ist auch noch äusserst dehnbar, leitet die Wärme besser und fühlt sich deshalb viel dünner und gefühlsechter an Cryptorobo Erfahrungen ein herkömmliches Kondom". Image 5, Dezember sind sie wieder in aller Munde: Kondome! Work-Life-Balance 4,
Surrounded by water and marshes, the Fens provided a safe area that was easily defended and not particularly desirable to invading Anglo-Saxons.
It has been proposed that the names of West Walton , Walsoken and Walpole suggest the native British population, with the Wal- coming from the Old English walh , meaning "foreigner".
Walton is generally believed to mean "wall-town",  Walsoken to mean "the district under particular jurisdiction by the wall",  and Walpole to mean simply "wall-pole" Old English wal and pal  or perhaps "well pool" Old English welle and pol.
When written records resume in Anglo-Saxon England, the names of a number of peoples of the Fens are recorded in the Tribal Hidage and Christian histories.
In the early Christian period of Anglo-Saxon England, a number of Christians sought the isolation that could be found in the wilderness of the Fens.
Later classified as saints, often with close royal links, they include Guthlac , Etheldreda , Pega , and Wendreda. Hermitages on the islands became centres of communities which later developed as monasteries with massive estates.
In the Life of Saint Guthlac , a biography of the East Anglian hermit who lived in the Fens during the early 8th century, Saint Guthlac was described as attacked on several occasions by people he believed were Britons , who were then living in the Fens.
However, Bertram Colgrave, in the introduction to one edition, doubts this account, because of the lack of evidence of British survival in the region.
British place names in the area are "very few". Monastic life was disrupted by Danish Anglo-Saxon raids and centuries of settlement from the 6th century but was revived in the midth-century monastic revival.
In the 11th century, the whole area was incorporated into a united Anglo-Saxon England. The Fens remained a place of refuge and intrigue.
It was here that Alfred Aetheling was brought to be murdered and here where Hereward the Wake based his insurgency against Norman England.
As major landowners, the monasteries played a significant part in the early efforts at drainage of the Fens.
During most of the 12th century and the early 13th century, the south Lincolnshire fens were afforested. It was deforested in the early 13th century.
There is little agreement as to the exact dates of the establishment and demise of the forest, but it seems likely that the deforestation was connected with the Magna Carta or one of its early 13th-century restatements, though it may have been as late as The forest would have affected the economies of the townships around it and it appears that the present Bourne Eau was constructed at the time of the deforestation , as the town seems to have joined in the general prosperity by about Though the forest was about half in Holland Lincolnshire and half in Kesteven , it is known as Kesteven Forest.
Though some signs of Roman hydraulics survive, and there were also some medieval drainage works, land drainage was begun in earnest during the s by the various investors who had contracts with King Charles I to do so.
Contrary to popular belief, Vermuyden was not involved with the draining of the Great Fen in Cambridgeshire and Norfolk in the s, but only became involved with the second phase of construction in the s.
Fenmen known as the Fen Tigers tried to sabotage the drainage efforts. Both cuts were named after the Fourth Earl of Bedford who, along with some gentlemen adventurers venture capitalists , funded the construction and were rewarded with large grants of the resulting farmland.
The work was directed by engineers from the Low Countries. Following this initial drainage, the Fens were still extremely susceptible to flooding, so windpumps were used to pump water away from affected areas.
However, their success was short-lived. Once drained of water, the peat shrank, and the fields lowered further.
The more effectively they were drained, the worse the problem became, and soon the fields were lower than the surrounding rivers. By the end of the 17th century, the land was under water once again.
Though the three Bedford Levels together formed the biggest scheme, they were not the only ones. Lord Lindsey and his partner Sir William Killigrew had the Lindsey Level inhabited by farmers by , but the onset of the Civil War permitted the destruction of the works until the Act of Parliament that led to the formation of the Black Sluice Commissioners.
The major part of the draining of the Fens was effected in the late 18th and early 19th century, again involving fierce local rioting and sabotage of the works.
The final success came in the s when windpumps were replaced with powerful coal-powered steam engines , such as Stretham Old Engine , which were themselves replaced with diesel-powered pumps, such as those at Prickwillow Museum and, following World War II , the small electric stations that are still used today.
The dead vegetation of the peat remained undecayed because it was deprived of air the peat being anaerobic. When it was drained, the oxygen of the air reached it, since then the peat has been slowly oxidizing.
As the highest parts of the drained fen are now only a few metres above mean sea level, only sizeable embankments of the rivers, and general flood defences, stop the land from being inundated.
Nonetheless, these works are now much more effective than they were. As of , there are estimated to be 4, farms in the Fens involved in agriculture and horticulture, including arable, livestock, poultry, dairy, orchards, vegetables and ornamental plants and flowers.
They employ about 27, people in full-time and seasonal jobs. In turn, they support around businesses involved in food and drink manufacturing and distribution, employing around 17, people.
In , the Great Fen Project was initiated to return parts of the Fens to their original pre-agricultural state. The modern approach is to allow a little farmland to be flooded again and turned into nature reserves.
By introducing fresh water, the organisers of the project hope to encourage species such as the snipe , lapwing and bittern. Endangered species such as the fen violet will be seeded.
The Fens Waterways Link is a scheme to restore navigation to some of the drainage works. The Fens is the origin of English bandy and speed skating.
It is the base of Great Britain Bandy Federation  and in Littleport there is a project in place aiming at building an indoor stadium for ice sports.
If successful it will have the largest sheet of ice in the country with both a bandy pitch and a speed skating oval. Many historic cities, towns and villages have grown up in the fens, sited chiefly on the few areas of raised ground.
These include:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. My mentoring work involves editing, development work, goal setting, motivation and discipline.
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He founded the small press Brow Books and ran it for five years, editing most of its titles — many of which found critical acclaim and won major awards.
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She is a well-rounded generalist editor. Kerry was manager of Indigenous publisher Magabala Books —95, and also has experience as a journalist and writer.
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We know what kids and parents want and can help you get the nuances of age and stage right. Glenda has been editing titles for the major Sydney publishers for 20 years.
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I have worked in publishing since My job is to make your manuscript the best manuscript it can be. I have empathy and imagination, and will work with you to help you take your manuscript where you want it to go — whether that is to a small group of people, or the world.
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General non-fiction, especially popular science and law for non-specialists. Digital publishing in theory and practice. Presentations and industry training.
Scott began his career in the late s as an editor at HarperCollins UK then became a senior editor at Larousse.
On moving to Australia he worked at HarperCollins and Weldon Owen before setting up a publishing services business. Scott was also a course convenor on the Macquarie University Postgraduate Diploma in Editing and Publishing, and has written and contributed to a wide range of non-fiction books.
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She is currently Publications Manager at Australian Poetry, and has a strong love of poetry, fiction and literary non-fiction in all its forms. Having worked across all aspects of print production, Jessica is able to shepherd a publication through its entire life cycle, from concept and design through to printing and distribution.
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Before working in-house as an editor with Scribe for four years, she was the online editor for Island magazine, special editor for the Review of Australian Fiction , and bookseller for Fullers Bookshop.
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The broadcasters and maintenance men who set up and operated the mobile stations experienced extreme hardships.
In some cases, personnel, equipment, food and weapons were dropped by parachutes or delivered by PT boats. Some were brought to new sites by light planes, which landed on dirt strips, laboriously hacked out of rain forests.
Other hazards in the tropics were jungle swamps, unbridged rivers and streams, and patches of mud into which men sank to their waists.
The climate was hot and humid and frequent rainstorms made the atmosphere oppressive. Malaria-carrying mosquitoes were everywhere.
On the larger, foliage-blanketed islands, from which outcrops of rocky mountains extended above the jungles, there was an ever-present, all-pervading scent of rotting vegetation that made breathing miserable.
Except for the sounds of exploding bombs and artillery shells, the stillness was so profound that an occasional harsh cry from a startled bird seemed to be sinister and awe-inspiring.
Keeping equipment in operating order was difficult at best. Drifting clouds that wreathed the treetops in swirling mists fed the dense canopy of dripping foliage far above the ever-saturated and almost sunless floor of the primeval jungle.
Even though the transmitters were set up under tents, they often experienced problems with short-circuiting caused by the moisture that constantly surrounded them.
Back-up units were not always available, which meant that often transmitters had to be "jury-rigged" in order to get anything out of them.
The hot and humid air also warped the discs records containing the recorded programming. On May 8, , word was received via radio from Delhi , announcing the end of hostilities in Europe.
Coast watchers and scouts also listened to the AFRS stations for information about what was happening. Coded messages were sometimes included in daily broadcasts to give them special information as well.
As the Allies drew closer to Japan , the fighting turned into a desperate island-by-island, hill-by-hill, and even inch-by-inch struggle.
Command of the airwaves over areas changed hands as much as twice weekly, and in a few instances, twice daily. That made it even more difficult for those manning the AFRS radio stations, because, if they got too close to the battlefronts, aerial bombing could destroy the stations.
On more than one occasion the operators did not have time to transport their equipment away from contested areas, and had to abandon the stations where they were.
As the war front drew closer to Japan's four main islands, another AFRS outlet was established, on the island of Okinawa, in July The station's studio and transmitter were located Rizal Ave.
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